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疫情防控期间常见法律问题中英文指引

作者:林祯 许中祯 童晓枫

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针对当前疫情防控中大家较为关心的法律问题,上海市司法局围绕不配合核酸检测、伪造变造检测报告、哄抬物价、合同履行中的“不可抗力”、疫情期间的劳动关系、应急征用的依据与程序,造谣传谣的法律责任等方面的问题,。yiboapp上海林祯、许中祯、童晓枫对问答指引适当补充,并翻译成中英对照版,以供参考。当前疫情防控处于关键阶段,呼吁广大市民共同遵守法律法规规定,主动配合政府及其相关部门采取的疫情防控措施,众志成城,共克时艰。

In response to the legal issues of concern to the public in the current epidemic prevention and control, the Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Justice has formulated the Q&A Guidelines, sorting out the issues with respect to non-cooperation with nucleic acid testing, falsification of test reports, price-jacking, force majeure in contract performance, labor issues during the epidemic outbreak, the basis and procedures for emergency expropriation, and legal liability for rumor-mongering. Ms. LIN Zhen, Ms. XU Zhongzhen and Ms. TONG Xiaofeng of Grandall Shanghai Office have made appropriate supplements to the Guidelines, and translated the same into English for your reference. As the epidemic prevention and control is at its most critical stage, we call on the general public to strictly comply with the laws and regulations, actively cooperate with the government and its relevant departments in taking measures to prevent and control the epidemic, and work together to overcome the difficulties.

一、不配合核酸检测、封控管理、伪造变造核酸检测报告的法律责任

I. Legal liabilities for not cooperating with nucleic acid testing and control management, and forging and altering nucleic acid testing reports

问:疫情期间,如果有人拒不配合核酸检测,将承担什么法律责任?

Q: What legal liability will be incurred if someone refuses to cooperate with nucleic acid testing during the epidemic prevention and control?

答:《中华人民共和国传染病防治法》第十二条规定,在中华人民共和国领域内的一切单位和个人,必须接受疾病预防控制机构、医疗机构有关传染病的调查、检验、采集样本、隔离治疗等预防、控制措施,如实提供有关情况。

A: Article 12 of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases stipulates that any and all units and individuals in the territory of the People's Republic of China must accept preventive and control measures such as investigation, testing, collection of samples, isolation and treatment of infectious diseases by disease prevention and control institutions and medical institutions, and truthfully provide relevant information.

《上海市公共卫生应急管理条例》第七条规定,任何单位和个人应当遵守有关法律、法规规定,服从各级人民政府及其有关部门发布的决定、命令、通告,配合各级人民政府及其有关部门依法采取的各项公共卫生事件预防与处置措施。第八十三条规定,单位或者个人违反本条例规定,不服从各级人民政府及其有关部门发布的决定、命令、通告或者不配合各项依法采取的措施,由有关主管部门责令改正,构成违反治安管理行为的,由公安机关依法给予处罚;导致公共卫生事件发生或者危害扩大,给他人人身、财产造成损害的,应当依法承担民事责任;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 7 of Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Public Health Emergency Management provides that any and all units and individuals shall comply with the relevant laws and regulations, obey the decisions, orders, notices issued by the people's governments at all levels and their relevant departments, and cooperate with the people's governments at all levels and their relevant departments in accordance with the law to take measures to prevent and dispose of public health events. Article 83 provides that any unit or individual who violates the provisions of these Regulations, does not obey the decisions, orders, notices issued by people's governments at all levels and their relevant departments or does not cooperate with the measures taken in accordance with the law shall be ordered by the competent authorities to correct its behavior; if the behavior constitutes a violation of public security management behavior, the unit or individual shall be punished by the public security organs according to law; if the behavior results in the occurrence of public health events or expends the harm to others’ personal and property, the unit or individual shall bear civil liability in accordance with the law; if it constitutes a crime, the unit or individual shall bear criminal liability in accordance with the law.

第八十四条规定,违反本条例规定的行为,除依法追究相应法律责任外,有关部门还应当按照规定,将有关单位失信信息以及个人隐瞒病史、疫情高风险地区旅行史或者居住史,逃避隔离治疗、医学观察、健康观察等信息向本市公共信用信息平台归集,并依法采取惩戒措施。因此,拒不配合核酸检测等疫情防控措施,需要依法承担相应的法律责任,并有可能被列入失信信息,依法采取惩戒措施。

Article 84 provides that for any violation of the provisions of this Regulation, in addition to being investigated for corresponding legal liability in accordance with the law, relevant authorities shall also, pursuant to the provisions, collect on the public credit information platform of this Municipality information on dishonesty of the relevant entities, and information on individuals' concealment of disease history, travel history or residence history in high-risk areas of epidemics to avoid isolation treatment, medical observation or health observation, etc., and take disciplinary measures pursuant to the law. Therefore, whoever refuses to cooperate in nucleic acid testing and other prevention and control measures shall bear the corresponding legal liability in accordance with the law and may be listed in the dishonesty information, with disciplinary measures taken pursuant to the law.

问:有人为了出行应付检查,伪造、变造核酸检测报告,将承担什么法律责任?

Q: What legal responsibility will be incurred if someone forges or alters a nucleic acid test report for travel inspection?

答:根据《治安管理处罚法》规定,伪造、变造或者买卖国家机关、人民团体、企业、事业单位或者其他组织的公文、证件、证明文件、印章的,处十日以上十五日以下拘留,可以并处一千元以下罚款;情节较轻的,处五日以上十日以下拘留,可以并处五百元以下罚款。伪造、编造核酸检测报告的行为,将受到相应的治安管理处罚。

A: According to the Law of the People's Republic of China on Administrative Penalties for Public Security, anyone who forges, falsifies, alters or trades in official documents, certificates, certification documents or seals of state organs, people's organizations, enterprises, institutions or other organizations shall be sentenced to detention for the period ranging from ten days to fifteen days, and may be fined up to RMB 1,000; where the case is relatively minor, he/she shall be detained for a period ranging from five days to ten days, and may be fined up to RMB 500. The act of forging or fabricating nucleic acid test reports will be subject to the corresponding public security management punishment.

此外,如果因伪造、编造核酸检测报告行为,引起疫情传播或者有传播严重危险,可能构成妨害传染病防治罪;如果是已经确诊的新型冠状病毒肺炎患者、病原携带者,伪造、编造核酸检测报告,并进入公共场所或者公共交通工具的,还可能构成以危险方法危害公共安全罪。

In addition, if the act of forging or fabricating the nucleic acid test report causes the spread of the epidemic or has a serious risk of spreading, it may constitute the crime of obstructing the prevention and control of infectious diseases; if a confirmed COVID-19 patient or a pathogen carrier forges or fabricates the nucleic acid test report and enters a public place or public transportation, such person may also constitute the crime of endangering public security by dangerous means.

问:封控、封闭小区的居民拒不配合封控管理,违反上海市相关防控政策的,擅自外出、聚集的法律责任?

Q: If a resident of controlled or separated communities refuses to cooperate with the prevent and control management, violates relevant prevention and control policies of Shanghai, hangs out or gathers without permission, what legal liability is he/she subject to?

答:根据《中华人民共和国治安管理处罚法》第五十条,有下列行为之一的,处警告或者二百元以下罚款;情节严重的,处五日以上十日以下拘留,可以并处五百元以下罚款:拒不执行人民政府在紧急状态情况下依法发布的决定、命令的;阻碍国家机关工作人员依法执行职务的;强行冲闯公安机关设置的警戒带、警戒区的。封控、封闭小区的居民拒不配合封控管理,擅自外出、聚集的,将受到相应的治安管理处罚。

A: According to Article 50 of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Administrative Penalties for Public Security, any of the following acts shall be penalized by a warning or a fine up to RMB 200; where the case is serious, he is subject to detention for a period ranging from five days to ten days, and may be fined up to RMB 500: refusal to implement the decision or order issued by the people's government in accordance with the law in case of emergency; obstructing the staff of state organs in the execution of their duties in accordance with the law; forcibly rushing through the cordon or controlled area set up by the public security organs. Those residents of controlled or separated areas who refuse to cooperate with the control management, hang out and gather without permission are subject to the corresponding public security management punishment.

此外,引起新型冠状病毒传播或者有传播严重危险的,涉嫌违反《中华人民共和国刑法》第三百三十条,构成妨害传染病防治罪。

In addition, those who cause the spread of the COVID-19 or are in serious danger of the spreading are suspected of violating Article 330 of the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, which constitutes the crime of obstructing the prevention and control of infectious diseases.

此外,确诊病人、病原携带者,隐瞒病情、瞒报行程信息,进入公共场所或者乘坐公共交通工具,造成新型冠状病毒传播的,涉嫌违反《中华人民共和国刑法》第一百一十四条、第一百一十五条,构成以危险方法危害公共安全罪。

In addition, a confirmed patient or carrier of the pathogen who conceals the disease or withholds information about the trip and enters a public place or takes public transportation, causing the spread of the COVID-19, is suspected of violating Article 114 and Article 115 of the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, which constitutes the crime of endangering public security by dangerous means.

因此,在当前严峻的疫情防控形势下,主动配合核酸检测等疫情防控措施是每个公民应尽的义务,不要存在侥幸心理、触碰法律底线。

Therefore, under the current serious situation of epidemic prevention and control, it is the duty of every citizen to cooperate with the prevention and control measures such as nucleic acid testing, and not to take any chances and challenge the bottom line of the law.

二、哄抬物价的法律责任

II.   Legal liabilities for price-jacking

问:疫情防控期间,部分经营者趁机涨价,是否构成哄抬价格违法行为?

Q: During the prevention and control period, some operators take the opportunity to raise prices, whether it constitutes an illegal act of jacking up prices?

答:在疫情防控期间,部分经营者对人民群众维持基本生活所必需的粮油肉蛋菜奶等民生商品,与抗击疫情关系最为密切的口罩、抗病毒药品、消毒杀菌用品、相关医疗器械等防疫用品,以及生产上述商品所需的相关原辅材料等,趁机涨价,不仅严重扰乱了市场秩序,损害了消费者的合法权益,还制造或加剧了恐慌性需求,破坏社会秩序,严重影响疫情防控工作平稳开展。

A: During the epidemic prevention and control period, some operators took the opportunity to raise prices on grain, oil, meat, eggs, vegetables, milk and other goods necessary for people’s basic livelihood, on masks, antiviral drugs, disinfection and sterilization supplies, medical equipment and other epidemic prevention supplies which are most closely related to the fight against the epidemic and on raw and auxiliary materials required for the production of the above products. Such behaviors not only seriously disrupted the market order and harmed the legitimate rights and interests of consumers, but also created or intensified the panic demand and damaged the social order, which seriously affected the smooth development of epidemic prevention and control management.

根据上海市市场监管局、上海市发展改革委发布的《关于疫情防控期间认定哄抬价格违法行为的指导意见》,经营者有下列情形之一的,构成《中华人民共和国价格法》第十四条规定的哄抬价格行为:(一)捏造、散布涨价信息,大幅度提高价格的;(二)生产成本或进货成本没有发生明显变化,以牟取暴利为目的,大幅度提高价格的;(三)在一些地区或行业率先大幅度提高价格的;(四)囤积居奇,导致商品供不应求而出现价格大幅度上涨的;(五)利用其他手段哄抬价格,推动商品价格过快、过高上涨的。

According to the Guiding Opinions on Determining the Illegal Act of Price-Jacking during the Period for Prevention and Control of the Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia Epidemic released by Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Market Supervision and Shanghai Municipal Development and Reform Commission, an operator constitutes the act of price-jacking under Article 14 of the Price Law of the People's Republic of China if such operator: (i) fabricates, disseminates information on price increases, or sharply raises the price; (ii) sharply raises the price for the purpose of seeking exorbitant profits while the production cost or purchase cost has not changed obviously; (iii) takes the lead in raising the price to a large extent in some regions or industries; (iv) hoards for profiteering result in the short supply of commodities and thus the price goes up sharply; and (v) jacks up prices by other means and causes the commodity prices to go up too fast or too high.

问:哄抬价格违法行为应当承担什么法律责任?

Q: Legal liabilities for price-jacking?

答:1. 行政责任。依据《价格法》《价格违法行为行政处罚规定》等有关规定,对哄抬价格,推动商品价格过快、过高上涨的违法行为,由市场监管部门责令改正,没收违法所得,并处违法所得5倍以下的罚款;没有违法所得的,处5万元以上50万元以下的罚款,情节较重的处50万元以上300万元以下的罚款;情节严重的,责令停业整顿,或者吊销营业执照。

A: 1. administrative liabilities. According to the Price Law of the People's Republic of China, the Provisions on Administrative Sanctions Against Price-related Illegal Activities and other relevant provisions, for any illegal act of jacking up prices, promoting an excessively rapid or high increase in commodity prices, the market regulatory authorities shall order the offender to make correction, confiscate illegal income and impose a fine of no more than five times the amount of illegal income; where there is no illegal income, a fine ranging from RMB 50,000 to RM B500,000 shall be imposed, and where the case is relatively serious, a fine ranging from RMB 500,000 to RMB 3,000,000 shall be imposed; where the case is serious, it shall be ordered to suspend business for rectification or its business license shall be revoked.

2. 刑事责任。根据最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部印发的《关于依法惩治妨害新型冠状病毒感染肺炎疫情防控违法犯罪的意见》(法发〔2020〕7号),在疫情防控期间,违反国家有关市场经营、价格管理等规定,囤积居奇,哄抬疫情防控急需的口罩、护目镜、防护服、消毒液等防护用品、药品或者其他涉及民生的物品价格,牟取暴利,违法所得数额较大或者有其他严重情节,严重扰乱市场秩序的,以非法经营罪定罪处罚,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处违法所得一倍以上五倍以下罚金;情节特别严重的,处五年以上有期徒刑,并处违法所得一倍以上五倍以下罚金或者没收财产。

2. Criminal liability. According to the Circular of the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of Justice on Issuing the Opinions on Legally Punishing Illegal and Criminal Acts Interfering with Prevention and Control of the New Coronavirus Pneumonia Epidemic (Fa Fa [2020] No. 7), during the prevention and control period, whoever hoards and speculates, jacks up the prices of masks, protective goggles, protective suits, disinfectants and other protective products, drugs and other articles relating to people's livelihood that are urgently needed in the prevention and control in violation of the relevant national provisions on market operation, price management, etc. to seek exorbitant profits, and the amount of illegal gains is relatively large or there are other serious circumstances which seriously disrupt market order, shall be convicted and punished for the crime of illegal business operation, and shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of no more than five years or criminal detention, and shall also, or shall only, be fined no less than one time but no more than five times the illegal gains; where the case is especially serious, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of no less than five years, and shall also be fined no less than one time but no more than five times the illegal gains or be sentenced to confiscation of property.

三、合同履行“不可抗力”的理解适用

III. Application of "force majeure" to contract performance

问:受疫情影响,很多合同无法正常履行,疫情能否认定为“不可抗力”,是否意味着合同都可以不履行了?

Q: Can the epidemic be considered as "force majeure", and does it mean that the contract cannot be performed?

答:《民法典》规定,不可抗力是不能预见、不能避免且不能克服的客观情况。

A: According to the Civil Code, force majeure is an objective situation that cannot be foreseen, avoided and overcome.

新冠肺炎疫情作为突发公共卫生事件,符合不可抗力的基本特征。2020年疫情期间,全国yiboapp法工委表示,新冠肺炎疫情对于因此不能履行合同的当事人来说,属于不可抗力。

The COVID-19 epidemic is a public health emergency and meets the basis characteristics of force majeure. During the outbreak in 2020, the Legal Affairs Commission of the National People's Congress stated that the COVID-19 epidemic was a force majeure for parties who are unable to perform their contracts as a result.

《民法典》第五百九十条规定:“当事人一方因不可抗力不能履行合同的,根据不可抗力的影响,部分或者全部免除责任,但是法律另有规定的除外。因不可抗力不能履行合同的,应当及时通知对方,以减轻可能给对方造成的损失,并应当在合理期限内提供证明。当事人迟延履行后发生不可抗力的,不免除其违约责任。”

Article 590 of the Civil Code provides that "If a party is unable to perform a contract due to force majeure, it shall, in light of the impact of the force majeure, be exempted from liability, in part or in whole, except as otherwise provided by law. If the party cannot perform the contract due to force majeure, it shall notify the other party in time to mitigate the damage that may be caused to the other party and shall provide proof within a reasonable period of time. If the force majeure occurs after the party has delayed its performance, the liability for breach shall not be exempted."

在具体理解和适用不可抗力时,需要注意以下几点:

With respect to the understanding and application of force majeure, please pay attention to the following issues:

1. 考虑因果关系和影响程度。虽然新冠肺炎疫情符合不可抗力的基本特征,但并不意味着疫情期间所有的合同都可以不履行了,在合同不能履行与疫情之间必须存在直接的因果关系;而且要结合案件具体情况,根据疫情对合同履行的影响程度,来认定是部分还是全部免除责任。此外,因不可抗力不能履行合同的,应当及时通知对方当事人,以减轻可能给对方造成的损失,并在合理期限内提供证明,否则需要承担违约责任。如果当事人已经延迟履行之后,才发生不可抗力的,就不能以不可抗力为由主张免除违约责任。

1. Consider the cause and effect and the degree of impact. Although the COVID-19 epidemic meets the basic characteristics of force majeure, it does not mean that all contracts cannot be performed during the epidemic period. There must be a direct causal relationship between the failure to perform the contract and the epidemic; and the specific circumstances of the case should be considered together with the degree of impact of the epidemic on the performance of the contract to determine whether the liability is partially or fully exempted. In addition, if a party cannot perform the contract due to force majeure, it shall notify the other party in a timely manner to mitigate the damage that may be caused to the other party and provide proof within a reasonable period of time, otherwise it is required to bear the liability for breach of contract. If force majeure occurs after the party has delayed performance, it cannot claim exemption from liability for the breach on the ground of force majeure.

2. 鼓励合同继续履行。对于疫情防控期间可以履行的合同,鼓励当事人按约继续履行;对于合同能够履行而拒绝履行的,应承担违约责任。对确因疫情影响,合同不能按约履行的,当事人可以协商变更合同,采取替代履行或者延迟履行等方式继续履行;如果不能替代履行或者延迟履行将导致合同目的无法实现的,当事人可以请求解除合同。

2. Encourage continued performance of the contract. For contracts that can be performed during the period of epidemic prevention and control, the parties are encouraged to continue to perform according to the contract; where a party refuses to perform the contract when it is able to do so, it shall bear the liability for breach of contract. If the contract cannot be performed due to the epidemic, the parties may negotiate to change the contract and continue to perform by alternative performance or delayed performance; if the alternative performance or delayed performance will lead to the failure to achieve the purpose of the contract, the parties may request to cancel the contract.

3. 注重利益平衡。对因疫情或者政府及其有关部门为应对疫情采取的防控措施影响,导致合同部分或者全部不能履行,或者继续履行对一方当事人的利益有重大影响的,应当依照公平、诚实信用等原则,结合案件具体情况,平衡好双方当事人的利益,合理分配各方的责任份额。

3. Balance of interests. For a contract cannot be performed, in part or in whole, due to the epidemic or the preventive and control measures taken by the government and its relevant departments, or the continued performance will cause significant impact upon the interest of either party, the interests of the two parties shall be balanced and the share of responsibilities of each party shall be determined in accordance with the principles of fairness, honesty and credit, and taking into account the specific circumstances of the case.

4. 倡导友好协商。疫情的发生是合同双方当事人都不愿看到的,也不能归咎于某一方的过错。在特殊时期,大家应当树立同舟共济、共渡难关的理念,倡导在平等自愿的基础上,本着诚实信用、责任共担的原则,通过友好协商,妥善解决矛盾分歧;对协商不成的,鼓励优先通过调解、仲裁等非诉讼途径解决。

4. Friendly consultation. No party wants to see the outbreak of this epidemic and it cannot be attributed to the fault on either side. In the special period, the parties should work together to tide over the difficulties and properly solve the dispute through friendly consultation and based upon the principles of equality, voluntariness, honesty and credit, and shared responsibility; failing which, the parties may solve the dispute through mediation, arbitration and other non-litigation channels.

四、疫情期间的劳动关系

IV. Labor relations during the epidemic

问:对因隔离治疗、医学观察或者其他隔离管控措施,不能提供正常劳动的企业职工,工资如何支付?劳动合同到期如何处理?

Q: How are wages paid to employees of enterprises who cannot provide normal labor due to isolation treatment, medical observation or other isolation control measures? How to deal with the expiration of the labor contract?

答:根据人力资源社会保障部办公厅《关于妥善处理新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情防控期间劳动关系问题的通知》(人社厅明电〔2020〕5号),新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎患者、疑似病人、密切接触者在其隔离治疗期间或医学观察期间以及因政府实施隔离措施或采取其他紧急措施导致不能提供正常劳动的企业职工,企业应当支付职工在此期间的工作报酬,并不得依据《劳动合同法》第四十条、四十一条与职工解除劳动合同。在此期间,劳动合同到期的,分别顺延至职工医疗期期满、医学观察期期满、隔离期期满或者政府采取的紧急措施结束。

A: According to the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security "Notice of the General Office of the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security on Properly Handling Labor Relation Issues during the Period for Prevention and Control of the Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia Epidemic" (Ren She Ting Fa Ming Dian [2020] No.5), Where an employee of an enterprise is unable to provide normal work as a result of being isolated and treated or under medical observation because that he/she is a patient with pneumonia, a suspected patient or in close contact with a person with the novel coronavirus infection, or as a result of the government's implementation of isolation measures or other emergency measures, the enterprise shall pay the employee remuneration during such period, and shall not rescind the employment contract with the employee in accordance with Articles 40 and 41 of the Employment Contract Law. During this period, if the employment contract expires, it shall be extended to the expiration of the employee's medical treatment period, medical observation period, isolation period or the end of the emergency measures taken by the government.

问:居家办公期间工资如何支付?

Q: How are wages paid during the period of home-based work?

答:根据人力资源社会保障部 中华全国总工会 中国企业联合会/中国企业家协会 中华全国工商业联合会《关于做好新型冠状病毒感染肺炎疫情防控期间稳定劳动关系支持企业复工复产的意见》(人社部发〔2020〕8号),对因受疫情影响职工不能按期到岗或企业不能开工生产的,要指导企业主动与职工沟通,有条件的企业可安排职工通过电话、网络等灵活的工作方式在家上班完成工作任务;对不具备远程办公条件的企业,与职工协商优先使用带薪年休假、企业自设福利假等各类假。要指导企业工会积极动员职工与企业同舟共济,在兼顾企业和劳动者双方合法权益的基础上,帮助企业尽可能减少受疫情影响带来的损失。

A: According to the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security,the All-China Federation of Trade Unions,All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce,China Enterprise Confederation,China Enterprise Directors Association, "Opinions on Stabilizing Employment Relationship during the Period for Prevention and Control of the Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia Epidemic to Support Enterprises in Resuming Work and Production" (Ren She Bu Fa [2020] No. 8), where the employees cannot arrive at their posts on time or the enterprises cannot start the production due to the epidemic, the enterprises shall be guided to initiatively communicate with their employees, and the qualified enterprises may arrange for their employees to work at home and complete the work assignments by flexible working methods via telephone and network; the enterprises not meeting the remote working conditions shall negotiate with their employees on the priority to take various kinds of paid annual leave and welfare leave given by the enterprises themselves. Trade unions of enterprises shall be guided to actively mobilize employees to work together with the enterprises in the same conditions, on the basis of taking into account the legitimate rights and interests of both enterprises and employees, so as to help the enterprises to minimize the losses brought about by the impact of the epidemic..

在受疫情影响的延迟复工或未返岗期间,对用完各类休假仍不能提供正常劳动或其他不能提供正常劳动的职工,指导企业参照国家关于停工、停产期间工资支付相关规定与职工协商,在一个工资支付周期内的按照劳动合同规定的标准支付工资;超过一个工资支付周期的按有关规定发放生活费。

During the period of delayed resumption of work or non-return to work affected by the epidemic, for the employees who still cannot provide normal work after taking various leaves or other employees who cannot provide normal work, the enterprise shall be guided to negotiate with them with reference to the relevant provisions of the State on wage payment during suspension of work and production, and pay wages to them under the standard stipulated in the labour contract within a wage payment cycle; where a wage payment cycle is exceeded, living expenses shall be paid pursuant to the relevant provisions.

根据全国总工会办公厅下发的《关于做好新冠肺炎疫情防控期间支持企业安全有序复工复产和劳动关系协调工作的通知》(工发电〔2020〕4号),对于企业安排以灵活方式在家上班的职工,按照正常工作期间的工资收入支付工资。

According to the “Notice on Supporting Enterprises in the Safe and Orderly Resumption of Work and Coordination of Labor Relations during the Period for Prevention and Control of the Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia Epidemic” issued by the General Office of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (Gong Fa Dian [2020] No. 4), Where an enterprise requires its employees to work at home in any flexible manner, the enterprise shall pay wages as that paid for normal working hours..

鼓励企业与职工树立同舟共济、共克时艰的理念,通过调整薪酬、轮岗轮休、缩短工时等方式稳定劳动关系,尽可能协商解决有关工资待遇问题。

Encourage enterprises and workers to establish the concept of close cooperation and mutual help, negotiate with each other to stabilize work posts by adjusting salaries, rotation of posts and leaves, shortening working hours and other means.

五、应急征用的依据与程序

V. The basis and procedures for emergency expropriation

问:政府及其部门是否有权征用宾馆等场所作为疫情防控的集中隔离和健康观察场所?

Q: Does the government and its departments have the right to requisition hotels and other places as centralized isolation and health observation places for epidemic prevention and control?

答:《民法典》《突发事件应对法》《传染病防治法》《上海市公共卫生应急管理条例》等法律法规规定,因疫情防控等紧急需要,依照法定权限和程序,可以征用组织、个人的不动产或者动产,包括应急所需的设施、设备、场地、交通工具和其他物资。《上海市公共卫生应急管理条例》还明确,区人民政府根据疫情防控要求,可以临时征用具备相关条件的宾馆等场所作为集中健康观察点。因此,政府及其部门为疫情防控需要临时征用宾馆等场所,具有明确的法律依据。

A: According to The PRC Civil Code, Emergency Response Law of the People's Republic of China, Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Public Health Emergency Management ,etc. facilities, equipment, venues, vehicles, and other materials needed for epidemic prevention or emergency response from organizations and individuals may be requisitioned pursuant to the authority and procedures stipulated by the law. Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Public Health Emergency Management also clarify that the district people's government may temporarily requisition hotels and other places with relevant conditions as centralized health observation points in accordance with the requirements for epidemic prevention and control.. Therefore, there is a clear legal basis for the government and its departments to temporarily requisition hotels and other places for epidemic prevention and control.

问:实施应急征用应当履行什么程序?

Q: What procedures should be carried out to implement emergency requisition?

答:《上海市公共卫生应急管理条例》规定,实施应急征用时,应当向被征用的单位或者个人发出应急征用凭证,在使用完毕或者公共卫生事件应急处置工作结束后,依法予以返还、补偿。2020年6月,市政府办公厅印发了《上海市应对突发事件应急征用补偿实施办法》(沪府办规〔2020〕6号),对应急征用的程序作了进一步细化,包括应急征用凭证的开具及载明的内容、被征用单位或者个人的配合义务、被征用物资的管理与返还等。

A: Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Public Health Emergency Management stipulate that when implementing emergency requisition, the requisitioned unit or individual shall be issued with an emergency requisition voucher, and be compensated after use or the emergency response to the public health incident is completed.. In June 2020, the General Office of the Municipal Government issued the Implementation Measures of Shanghai Municipality on Compensation for Emergency Requisition in Response to Emergencies (Hu Fu Ban Gui (2020) No. 6), further refining the procedures for emergency requisition, including the issuance of emergency requisition vouchers and the contents contained therein, the obligations of the requisitioned units or individuals, the management and return of requisitioned materials, etc.

问:实施应急征用后应当如何补偿?

Q: How should be compensated after the implementation of emergency expropriation?

答:《上海市应对突发事件应急征用补偿实施办法》(沪府办规〔2020〕6号)对补偿通知、补偿材料、补偿范围和标准、补偿认定、补偿方式、补偿拨付等内容作了明确规定。被征用单位或者个人自收到应急征用物资使用情况确认书或者补偿公告期限届满之日起6个月内,向实施应急征用单位提交补偿的相关书面材料;实施应急征用单位收到后,应当根据补偿范围和标准,会同同级财政部门对补偿金额予以审核,确定补偿方案。补偿方案经批准后,实施应急征用单位与被征用单位或者个人签订应急征用补偿协议,财政部门按照财政资金管理办法规定的程序,向被征用单位或者个人拨付补偿资金。

A: The Implementation Measures of Shanghai Municipality on Compensation for Emergency Requisition in Response to Emergencies (Hu Fu Ban Gui (2020) No. 6) clearly defines the compensation notice, compensation materials, compensation scope and standard, compensation identification, compensation method, compensation allocation, etc. The requisitioned unit or individual shall, within 6 months from the date of receiving the confirmation of the use of the materials requisitioned for emergency requisition or the expiration of the notice of compensation, submit the relevant written materials of compensation to the unit engaged in emergency requisition; after receiving the requisition for emergency requisition, the unit shall, in accordance with the scope and standard of compensation, examine the amount of compensation together with the financial department at the same level and determine the compensation scheme.After the compensation scheme is approved, the unit engaged in emergency requisition shall sign an agreement on compensation for emergency requisition with the unit or individual requisitioned, and the financial department shall allocate compensation funds to the unit or individual requisitioned in accordance with the procedures prescribed in the measures for the management of financial funds.

问:应急征用发生争议该如何解决?

Q: How to resolve disputes over emergency expropriation?

答:疫情防控是当前的头等大事,需要社会各方面的支持与配合。政府及其部门开展应急征用及补偿工作,应当注重对自然人、法人和非法人组织合法权益的保护,妥善做好场所清理、物品保管、安置补偿等工作。被征用单位或者个人应当积极配合,发生争议时,尽量通过协商方式解决;协商无法解决的,可以依法通过行政复议或者诉讼途径解决。

A: The prevention and control of the epidemic is a top priority and requires the support and cooperation of all sectors of society. The government and its departments shall pay attention to the protection of the legitimate rights and interests of natural persons, legal persons and unincorporated organizations in the work of emergency requisition and compensation, and do a proper job of site cleaning, goods storage, resettlement and compensation. Requisitioned units or individuals should actively cooperate, and when disputes arise, try to resolve them through consultation; if consultation cannot be resolved, they can be resolved through administrative reconsideration or litigation in accordance with the law.

六、造谣传谣的法律责任

VI. the legal responsibility of rumor-mongering and disinformation

问:在疫情防控的关键时刻,却总有一些人试图编造、散布各种引发焦虑、恐慌的谣言,扰乱社会公共秩序,需要承担哪些法律责任?

Q: At the critical moment of epidemic prevention and control, there are always people who try to fabricate and spread various rumors that cause anxiety and panic and disturb the public order, what legal responsibilities do they need to bear?

答:1. 造谣传谣扰乱公共秩序的,应承担行政责任。根据《治安管理处罚法》的规定,散布谣言,谎报疫情的,处五日以上十日以下拘留,可以并处五百元以下罚款;情节较轻的,处五日以下拘留或者五百元以下罚款。

A: 1. Those who create and spread rumors to disturb public order shall bear administrative responsibility. According to the "Law of the People's Republic of China on Administrative Penalties for Public Security", those who intentionally disturbing public order by spreading rumors, making false reports of epidemic situations shall be detained for not less than 5 days but not more than 10 days and may, in addition, be fined not more than 500 yuan; and if the circumstances are relatively minor, he shall be detained for not more than 5 days or be fined not more than 500 yuan.

2. 造谣传谣情节严重,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。根据最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部印发的《关于依法惩治妨害新型冠状病毒感染肺炎疫情防控违法犯罪的意见》(法发〔2020〕7号),造谣传谣情节严重的,可能构成以下犯罪:(1)编造、故意传播虚假信息罪。编造虚假的疫情信息,在信息网络或者其他媒体上传播,或者明知是虚假疫情信息,故意在信息网络或者其他媒体上传播,严重扰乱社会秩序的,以编造、故意传播虚假信息罪定罪处罚,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制;造成严重后果的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑。(2)寻衅滋事罪。编造虚假信息,或者明知是编造的虚假信息,在信息网络上散布,或者组织、指使人员在信息网络上散布,起哄闹事,造成公共秩序严重混乱的,以寻衅滋事罪定罪处罚,处五年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制;纠集他人多次实施该类行为,严重破坏社会秩序的,处五年以上十年以下有期徒刑,可以并处罚金。

2. If the circumstances of rumor-mongering are serious and constitute a crime, criminal liability shall be investigated according to law. According to the “Opinions on Lawfully Punishing Illegality and Criminality that Obstruct Prevention and Control of COVID-19”(Fafa [2020] No. 7) jointly formulated by the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate,the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of Justice, rumor-mongering and rumor-spreading in serious cases may constitute the following crimes: (1) [Crime of Fabricating or Deliberately Disseminating False Information]. Whoever fabricates false information of epidemic, spreads such information through the information networks or other media, or is aware of the falsehood of the above information but deliberately spreads it on the information networks or other media, seriously disrupting social order, shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than 3 years, criminal detention or public surveillance; if serious circumstances are caused, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment from 3 to 7 years. (2) [Crime of Picking Quarrels and Provoking Troubles] .Whoever fabricates false information, or knowingly disseminates false information on the information network, or organizes or instructs people to disseminate it on the information network, making trouble in a public place, which causes a serious disorder of the public place., shall be convicted and punished for the crime of Picking Quarrels and Provoking Troubles, and shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years, criminal detention or public surveillance; whoever assembles other people to commit the acts as mentioned in the preceding paragraph many times, which seriously disrupts the social order, shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years but not more than ten years and may also be fined.

3. 造谣传谣侵犯他人合法权益的,应承担相应的民事责任。《民法典》明确民事主体的人格权受法律保护。编造、散播谣言或者对他人进行侮辱、诽谤,侵害他人名誉权、荣誉权、隐私权等人格权的行为,均需依法承担相应的民事责任。

3. Those who create rumors and spread rumors to violate the legitimate rights and interests of others shall bear the corresponding civil liability. The Civil Code specifies that the personality rights of civil subjects shall be protected by the law. Any act of fabricating or spreading rumors or insulting or defaming others, infringing on others' rights to reputation, honor, privacy and other personality rights, shall be subject to corresponding civil liability according to law.


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